Brest-Litovsk Peace Agreement

by admin on September 12th, 2021

In Petrograd, Trotsky argued passionately against the signing, suggesting instead that “they should announce the end of the war and demobilization without signing peace.” [25] Lenin was in favor of signing an even more ruinous treaty, instead of being imposed on them after a few weeks of further military humiliation. The “left communists”, led by Nikolai Bucharin and Karl Radek, were certain that Germany, Austria, Turkey and Bulgaria were all on the brink of revolution. They wanted to continue the war with a newly established revolutionary force while waiting for these upheavals. [26] Therefore, Lenin Trotsky`s formula agreed – a position summarized as “no war – no peace”, which was proclaimed at the time of the revocation of the negotiators on February 10, 1918. As part of the agreement they concluded, Poland, Finland, the Baltic States and most of Ukraine were handed over to Germany. Russia has lost 1.3 million square miles of significant territory, including important grain-producing areas in Ukraine. It ceded about 62 million people to German rule, or about a third of its total population. It also lost 28 percent of its heavy industry and three-quarters of its iron and coal reserves. On January 20, 1918, the Ukrainian delegation returned to Kiev, where the Tsentralna Rada proclaimed on January 25 (dated January 22) a fully sovereign Ukrainian state. Immediately afterwards, a new Ukrainian delegation, led by Oleksandr Sevriuk, was sent to Brest. Meanwhile, Bolshevik revolts took place in several cities in Ukraine, more or less forcing the Ukrainian People`s Republic – which lacked organized armed forces – to seek foreign aid.

[2] The situation was also critical for the middle powers, in particular for Austria-Hungary, which was suffering from severe food shortages. [3] On February 1, the Soviet government of Ukraine also participated in a plenary session of the Congress in the presence of Yukhym Medvediev and Vasyl` Shakhrai. Nevertheless, the Middle Powers continued to negotiate with the delegation of the Ukrainian People`s Republic as the exclusive representative of Ukraine. [2] While the Tsentralna Rada left Kiev for Bolshevik troops, a peace treaty was signed on the night of February 8-9 due to Bolshevik protests in Brest-Litovsk. The Treaties of Brest-Litovsk, peace treaties signed in Brest-Litovsk (now Belarus) by the Middle Powers with the Ukrainian Republic (February 9, 1918) and Soviet Russia (March 3, 1918) ended hostilities between these countries during World War I.

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